GST Knowledge Product Series
In developing economies, the service sector generates about 55% of national product and half of total female employment. Manufacturing, mining and agriculture account for the rest. Services also account for a significant share of exports, particularly when services that are traded indirectly, through their incorporation in exported goods, are included. Despite its predominance, little analysis has been done so far of the links between trade in services and employment outcomes by gender. This study aims to fill part of this gap. Authors: Andrea Lassmann and Nanno Mulder
Gender and investment agreements - building on best practices to include gender in investment agreements (2021)
This Guide explains how the regulation of FDI has evolved, why Gender Equality and Social Inclusion (GESI) needs to be addressed in international investment treaties and the ways in which this can be implemented, along with the associated challenges. It is a basic ‘crossover’ guide for audiences based in two very different domains of policymaking: investment law and policymakers and negotiators on the one hand and gender equality ministries and civil society stakeholders, on the other. Author: Kamala Dawar
One way to contribute to women’s empowerment in international trade and gender equality are voluntary sustainability standards. They have emerged as one of the main tools used to articulate, encourage and enforce sustainable and ethical practices in global value chains. Author: Sally Smith
The first step in gender-aware economic analysis involves building the statistical picture of an economy as a gendered structure. Such a picture, if appropriately disaggregated in terms of production sectors, workers’ and households’ characteristics can provide a useful baseline from which to track the direct and indirect effects of trade changes by gender. By highlighting existing inequalities, it can help assess whether proposed trade reforms and agreements are likely to redress or intensify bottlenecks to women’s access to economic resources and opportunities. It can also guide the selection of relevant indicators for ex-post monitoring. Author: Marzia Fontana
How has the regulation of international trade evolved and why is there are need for gender inequality and social inclusion to be addressed in rule-making for international trade? A basic ‘crossover’ guide for audiences based in two very different domains of policymaking: trade policymakers and negotiators on the one hand and gender equality ministries and civil society stakeholders, on the other. Autors: Susan Joekes with Alicia Frohmann and Marzia Fontana.
OECD, Trade and Gender: A Framework of Analysis (2021)
Closing gender gaps makes good economic sense. Advancing the aim of women’s economic empowerment will require policy action across a wide range of areas, including increasing their participation in international trade. Although trade policies are not de jure discriminatory, they impact women and men differently due to dissimilar initial conditions. A framework is proposed for analysing the impacts of trade and trade policies on women that policy makers can use in order to ensure that trade and trade policies in their country support women’s economic empowerment.
International Trade Centre, Delivering on the Buenos Aires Declaration on Trade and Women’s Economic Empowerment. ITC, Geneva (2020)
Trade policy for women took an international leap with the Buenos Aires Declaration on Trade and Women’s Economic Empowerment, endorsed by more than 120 countries at the 11th WTO Ministerial Conference of 2017.
This report, produced under the auspices of the International Gender Champions’ Trade Impact Group, presents related findings: recommendations and 32 good practices for gender-based analysis, global value chains, public procurement, trade agreements, digital trade and financial inclusion.